How to Control Mosquitoes …???

1.Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS).
2.Fogging Treatment.
3.Larvicides Treatment.

1.Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS).

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the inside of dwellings, on walls and other surfaces that serve as a resting place for malaria-infected mosquitoes. IRS kills mosquitoes when they come in contact with treated surfaces, preventing disease transmission.
Most of the insecticides having residual effect are sprayed indoors, so that mosquitoes after having bite on an ineffective person will rest in the house and will pick up sufficient insecticide particles sprayed on the walls and other indoor surfaces of the house and its longevity will be reduced so much so that it does not survive to become ineffective. In areas where the vectors are strongly endophilic, i.e. they tend to rest indoors, indoor residual spraying of human dwellings can give very effective control. Vectors that are exophillic i.e. they tend to rest outdoor but tend to feed or rest indoors briefly, can be effectively controlled by indoor residual spraying with insecticides that have good airborne effect. In areas where vectors are strongly exophilic and/or exophagic, i.e. they rest and bite outdoors, other control methods, such as use of insecticide treated mosquito nets or exterior space spraying (for emergency control), should be considered.
The indoor residual spray of human dwellings is as important for malaria control in the community, as is the early case detection and prompt treatment for an individual cure, therefore, it is essential that residual insecticidal spray should be planned and implemented with sound technical skill under expert guidance. It should not be entrusted to non-technical personnel like contractors, voluntary bodies etc. In the revised approach to malaria control, it has been decided to spray human dwellings and mixed dwellings.

INDOOR RESIDUAL SPRAYING (IRS)
Insecticide formulations and dosages
S.No. Name of Insecticide Preparation of suspension in water Dosage per sq.metre of active ingredient Residual effect in weeks Area to be covered by 10 lit.of suspension to get correct dosage
1. Lambdacyhalothrin 10% wp 125 gm/10 Lit 25 mg 10-12 500 sq.m
2. Alphacypermethrin 5%wp 250gm/10 Lit. 25 mg 10-12 500 sq.m
3. Bifenthrin 10% WP 125g/10 litre 25 mg. 10-12 500 sq.m.

2.Fogging Treatment.

Thermal fogging is a space treatment against adult mosquitoes. The fog is produced by a device (thermal fogger) that uses heat to break up the chemical into very small droplets (usually in 5-30 micron diameter range) which will disperse in the air. When the chemical (usually diluted with oil-based carrier) is heated, it is vaporized in a combustion chamber and then expelled via an outlet tube to form a dense fog cloud when it condenses on contact with cool ambient air. It can even reach air spaces in areas obstructed by dense vegetation or other objects. When the mosquitoes in flight come into contact with the droplets, they will be knocked down and killed. Thermal fogging can quickly reduce the number of biting mosquitoes but does not have lasting residual effects. As adult mosquitoes must come into contact with the pesticide, the timing of application is critical. While different mosquito species are active during different periods of the day, it is essential to fog at the right time to get effective control of the target species. Thermal fogging is very susceptible to wind and thermal air currents. If applied during unfavorable conditions, such as during a hot day, the fog may be carried up and over the target places and the application will become ineffective. If applied in a very windy day, the fog will drift out of the area that you want to treat. Application should therefore be carried out when the air is calm and the temperature is not too high, such as during the evening or at night or early in the morning when the fog is more likely to be held close to the ground. Thermal fogging should only be conducted by experienced and trained pest control personnel. Each application must be carefully planned with all the precautionary measures put in place. It may be necessary to give advance notice and warning to those in the immediate neighborhoods if they will be affected. As a dense thick smoke is produced, it is also necessary to ensure that the operation does not create visibility hazard to passing motorists. The applicator should wear appropriate personal protective equipment including respiratory protection to prevent inhaling the chemical. Other necessary safeguards to prevent fire and explosion and burn by heated parts of the thermal fogger must also be taken. For proper use of the fogger, it is essential to follow the instructions in the operation manual that comes along with the machine.

FOGGING TREATMENT :
Insecticide formulations and dosages
S.No. Name of Insecticide Preparation of suspension in Kerosene/Diesel Residual effect in weeks
1. Pyrethrum 2% 1 Litre /19 Litre Per Week
2. Malathion (Technical) 1 Litre /19 Litre Per Week
3. Cyphenothrin
700ml/10 Litre (Outdoor)
1.50Litre/100Litre (Indoor) Per Week

3.Larvicides Treatment.

When it is not possible to eliminate stagnant water that may become breeding grounds of mosquitoes, and there are no alternative methods of control, larvicides may be applied to the water bodies. The success of larval control depends upon many factors such as the chemical ingredients and formulation of the selected larvicides; the timing, rates and methods of application; and the physical and environmental conditions. A list of registered pesticides that can be used as mosquito larvicides is presented in Table 1 . For specific rates and safety precautions on the use of larvicides, always follow the directions on the product’s label.

LARVICIDES TREATMENT:
Insecticide formulations and dosages
S.No. Name of Insecticide Preparation of suspension in water Residual effect in weeks
1. Temephos 50 EC 25 ml /10 Lit One Week
2. MLO (Mosquito Larvicidal Oil) 2 kg/10 Lit One Week